Children, family and home data
All Aboriginal children and young people are safe, resilient, thriving and living in culturally rich, strong Aboriginal families and communities.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 1, 2 and 3.
Goal 1: Aboriginal children are born healthy and thrive
The first 5 years of a child's life are fundamental to shaping their future.
Delivering better maternal and early childhood services means removing barriers, promoting genuine and effective partnerships and supporting Aboriginal families to access culturally safe services.
1.1 Improve maternal and infant health
Babies born with low birth weight
Babies born preterm
Maternal smoking during first 20 weeks of pregnancy
1.2 Children thrive in their first 1,000 days
Participation rates for Maternal and Child Health at key ages and stages of consultations
Attendance at Koori Maternity Services
Participation of 0–5 years children in Supported Playgroups (SPG)
Goal 2: Aboriginal children are raised by Aboriginal families
Culture, language and connection to community and Country all support children and young people to thrive.
Despite this, Victorian Aboriginal children and young people remain vastly over-represented in child protection and care.
2.1 Eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal children and young people in care
Children and young people in out of home care
Children in out of home care who are engaged with intensive family support services
2.2 Increase Aboriginal care, guardianship and management of Aboriginal children and young people in care
Aboriginal children in care by placement type
Aboriginal children and young people in care with a Cultural Plan
Aboriginal children and young people in care on contractible orders managed by Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs)
Aboriginal children and young people on protection orders under the direct authority of an ACCO (section 18)
2.3 Increase family reunifications for Aboriginal children and young people in care
Children who are reunified with parents within 12 months of admission to care
Children who exit care and do not return to care within 12 months
Goal 3: Aboriginal families and households thrive
Family violence has a disproportionate impact on Aboriginal people in Victoria, particularly women and children, regardless of where they live.
Aboriginal communities in Victoria have consistently led the way in developing strategic priorities and actions to prevent family violence. This is demonstrated through strong whole‑of‑community engagement initiatives that bring together women, men, children and Elders to collectively break the cycles of violence.
3.1 Reduce the incidence and impact of family violence affecting Aboriginal families
Family violence incidents by other party
Family violence incidents against an affected family member
Notifications to child protection for children and young people where family violence is identified
3.2 Increase income and housing security for Aboriginal households
Proportion of adults who did not run out of food and could afford to buy more, in the last 12 months
Proportion of households with less than 50% median equivalised income
Proportion of Victorian households in rental and mortgage stress
Proportion of Victorians who are homeless or accessing homelessness services
Proportion of Aboriginal Victorians living in over-crowded dwellings
Learning and skills data
Every Aboriginal person achieves their potential, succeeds in life, and feels strong in their cultural identity.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Goal 4: Aboriginal children thrive in the early years
Education is well known to be linked to improved wellbeing and increased equity, with kindergarten and early schooling a critical starting point to set Aboriginal children up for life.
Increased enrolment and participation in kindergarten and early-start programs can significantly improve social and emotional skills and resilience, and ensure Aboriginal children are in the best position to achieve their potential.
Proportion of children vulnerable on one or more domain on the Australian Early Development Census
Goal 5: Aboriginal learners excel at school
For Aboriginal learners to excel at school, it is vital that schools are culturally supportive and responsive learning environments.
Cultural safety and connection to culture is a critical foundation that supports Aboriginal children to be confident learners and makes schools more inclusive of Aboriginal students and their aspirations.
5.1 Bring Aboriginal achievement at school in line with learners' aspirations
Percentage of students in top 3 bands: Literacy or numeracy (NAPLAN) in Year 3, 5, 7 and 9
5.2 Increase the proportion of Aboriginal students who feel safe and connected at school
Number of Aboriginal people on school councils
Number and proportion of school-based Aboriginal education workers (principals, teachers, education support staff) across all government schools
Goal 6: Aboriginal learners are engaged at school
Remaining engaged in school and completing and excelling at Year 12 or equivalent can provide Aboriginal learners with greater opportunities and choice for their future pathways.
Completing Year 12 or equivalent can support Aboriginal learners to pursue further education and training or to gain employment.
6.1 Increase year 12 or equivalent attainment
Proportion of young people aged 20-24 with Year 12 or equivalent
Number of Aboriginal students that complete the VCE, VCAL or VET in Schools Certificate
Goal 7: Aboriginal learners achieve their full potential after school
The opportunities and pathways made available to students immediately after high school can help set up a strong foundation for a successful, healthy and prosperous future.
Aboriginal learners must be supported to pursue their pathway of choice, whether that be further education, training or formal employment. This means making these opportunities more accessible for Aboriginal young people, as well as ensuring young people feel supported to follow their ambitions.
Lifelong learning must also be accessible and encouraged for adult Aboriginal Victorians, particularly those facing additional challenges to social and economic participation.
Proportion of 17 to 24 year old school leavers participating in full time education and training and/or employment
Participation and completion of Victorian 18 to 24 year-olds in VET(a) or university studies
Proportion of 20 to 64 year-olds with qualifications at Certificate III level or above
Proportion of 20 to 64 year-old government-funded and total VET graduates employed and/or in further study after training
Proportion of graduates and cadets employed in VPS – retention, progression and satisfaction
Opportunity and prosperity data
Fully participating in the economy provides Aboriginal Victorians with the resources they need to determine the future they want. Economic participation is therefore key to Aboriginal self‑determination.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 8, 9 and 10.
Goal 8: Aboriginal workers achieve wealth equality
Aboriginal Victorians have a long history of enterprise. Today, successful Aboriginal entrepreneurs are role models for young Aboriginal people.
As businesses grow and develop, they allow the next generation of entrepreneurs to step forward. Over time, this strengthens the economic position of Aboriginal communities.
8.1 Increase Aboriginal household income in line with the Victorian median
Median household income and median equivalised household income
8.2 Increase Aboriginal home ownership in line with the Victorian average
Proportion of home owners versus other tenure types (by age bracket)
8.3 Increase Aboriginal business ownership and support Aboriginal entrepreneurs
Number of Victorian business owner-managers who are Aboriginal
Aboriginal businesses that government enters into a purchase agreement with as a proportion of small to medium enterprises
Goal 9: Strong Aboriginal workforce participation, in all sectors and at all levels
Fully participating in the economy provides Aboriginal Victorians with the resources they need to determine the future they want.
Economic participation is therefore key to Aboriginal self‑determination.
9.1 Increase Aboriginal workforce participation
Employment to population ratio
Proportion employed in full-time versus part-time or casual employment
Aboriginal jobseekers supported into work
9.2 Increase workforce participation for women
Workforce participation of women
9.3 Increase workforce participation for Aboriginal young people, people with a disability and people living in regional areas
Workforce participation by age, disability status and regional versus metropolitan
9.4 Increase Aboriginal leadership and representation across all sectors and levels
Aboriginal employment by sector, industry and occupation – with analysis by growth industry
Proportion of Aboriginal people employed across the VPS (with 2% target by 2022)
Number of Aboriginal people at VPS 6 level and above in the VPS
Number of Aboriginal people participating on government boards
Goal 10: Aboriginal income potential is realised
Aboriginal people, organisations and businesses already make valuable contributions to Victoria’s diverse economy.
Aboriginal economic development is vital to growing Victoria’s wealth generally and to increasing overall economic productivity and competitive advantage.
If the talent and aspiration of Aboriginal Victorians is given full expression in the Victorian economy, there is significant opportunity for Aboriginal income growth.
10.1 Increase Victoria's Aboriginal gross income and decrease the opportunity cost of Aboriginal income inequality
Estimated weekly income for all employed Aboriginal Victorians, mid-point of 2016 census income ranges
Health and wellbeing data
Improving health outcomes and having a good quality of life will ensure all Victorian Aboriginal communities can thrive.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 11, 12, 13 and 14.
Goal 11: Aboriginal Victorians enjoy health and longevity
Enjoying good health and wellbeing is fundamental.
While many Aboriginal Victorians report good health and there have been areas of improvement, government, services and communities need to take significant steps to improve health outcomes and quality of life for all Aboriginal Victorians.
Improving health outcomes and having a good quality of life will ensure all Victorian Aboriginal communities can thrive.
11.1 Improve Aboriginal health status, quality of life and life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth in Victoria
Proportion of age standardised self-assessed health status
Age standardised proportion of persons aged 18 and above who are daily smokers in Victoria
Separations per 1,000 population for preventable hospitalisations in Victoria
Cancer incidence for Victorians
Number and rate of emergency department presentations for alcohol or drug related harm
Closed episodes for alcohol and other drug treatment services in Victoria
Goal 12: Aboriginal Victorians access the services they need
Access to primary health care is essential for supporting equitable health outcomes. Primary health care also plays an important role in prevention and early detection.
The provision of services alone does not ensure equity of access. Ensuring all Aboriginal Victorians can access the services they need means responding to the diversity of clients’ needs.
This includes promoting the voice of and providing support services to older people, people with a disability and people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and gender diverse, and intersex (LGBTI).
12.1 Improve access to health and community services for all Aboriginal Victorians
Number and proportion of Aboriginal Victorians who received a health check or assessment by age
Participation rates for women screened by BreastScreen Australia
Proportion and number accessing disability services in Victoria
Number and proportion accessing aged care services
Number and proportion of people aged 55 years or over who had an annual health assessment
Goal 13: Health and community services are culturally safe and responsive
It is important that Aboriginal Victorians can access culturally safe and culturally responsive health services when they need it.
A culturally safe and racism-free health and community service system is one in which people feel safe, where they can freely affirm their identity and where their needs are met.
13.1 Increase cultural safety and responsiveness of services
Aboriginal Victorians that reported experienced racism in health settings within the previous 12 months
Proportion reporting positive client experience of GP services
Hospitalisations where patients left against medical advice/were discharged at own risk in Victoria
Number and proportion of Aboriginal people employed in the health or social services sector
Goal 14: Aboriginal Victorians enjoy social and emotional wellbeing
Most Victorian Aboriginal people and communities enjoy excellent social and emotional wellbeing and mental health.
However, many Aboriginal people report experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress.
14.1 Improve Aboriginal mental health and social and emotional wellbeing
Proportion reporting ‘high or very high’ levels of psychological and psychosocial distress
Self-harm-related emergency department presentations in Victoria
Persons aged 15 and above who are able to get support in times of crisis from outside their household in Victoria
People with a disability that are able to get support in times of crisis in Victoria
Community mental health care service contacts per 1,000 population in Victoria
Justice and safety data
While the number of Aboriginal young people in detention in Victoria remains small, the proportion of Aboriginal young people in detention has increased.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 15, 16, and 17.
Goal 15: Aboriginal over-representation in the justice system is eliminated
Most Aboriginal people will never become involved in the Victorian criminal justice system. However, those who do are more likely to experience ongoing involvement with the system.
Systemic and structural barriers that Aboriginal people experience — such as racism, social and economic disadvantage and involvement in the child protection system — can lead to over-representation in the justice system and entrenched cycles of disadvantage.
15.1 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal children and young people in the justice system
Unique youth offenders receiving a caution, arrest, summons or other by Indigenous status in Victoria
Young people (10 to 17 years) under youth justice community based supervision and supervision in detention, daily average
First-time youth alleged offenders (10 to 17 years) cautioned by police
Youth (10 to 17 years) in detention on remand
15.2 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal women in the justice system
Unique adult (18 years and above) female alleged offenders processed by police
Women under corrections supervision
Women who return to prison under sentence within 2 years of release
Women in prison on remand
15.3 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal men in the justice system
Unique adult male alleged offenders processed by police
Men under corrections supervision
Men who return to prison under sentence within 2 years of release from a sentence episode
Men in prison on remand
Goal 16: Aboriginal Victorians have access to safe and effective justice services
Prevention and early intervention can keep Aboriginal young people, women and men out of the criminal justice system.
Community-based diversion programs and community-led services that connect people to culture can also help break cycles of offending and promote positive outcomes.
This also requires intersectional services in health, child protection, homelessness and family violence, to deliver effective prevention and early intervention support.
16.1 Increase Aboriginal participation in culturally safe and effective justice prevention, early intervention, diversion and support programs
Number and proportion of Aboriginal youth receiving intensive bail support through the Koori Intensive Support Program
Number and proportion of Aboriginal adults receiving and referred for intensive bail support
Number of Aboriginal youth accessing community support programs through youth justice community services
Goal 17: Aboriginal Victorians feel safe and connected
Victoria Police Recruits, including Protective Services Officers, all receive Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training during Week 1 and Week 4 at the Police Academy.
Community-led justice responses are working to address local issues and build greater trust between Elders, community and police.
17.1 Increase community safety and trust in police and the justice system
Proportion of police officers who have received Aboriginal cultural awareness training (June 30 2020)
Victorians who feel safe/very safe walking alone at night in local area in the last 12 months (2006–08 and 2014–15)
Proportion who reported being a victim of physical or threatened violence in the last 12 months (2005–08 and 2014–16)
Aboriginal people employed with the Department of Justice and Community Safety, Victoria Police and Court Services Victoria
Culture and Country data
Victorian Aboriginal communities and peoples are culturally diverse, with rich and varied languages, traditions and histories.
View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 18, 19 and 20.
Goal 18: Aboriginal land, water and cultural rights are realised
We recognise that Aboriginal Victorians hold distinct cultural rights, including the right to maintain their spiritual, material and economic relationship with their traditional lands and waters.
The connection to land, water and resources on Country is important to the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal Victorians, particularly Traditional Owners.
Reconnecting Traditional Owners to Country can help revive culture and contribute to an improved sense of identity. We recognise that only Traditional Owners can speak for Country.
18.1 Increase the recognition and enjoyment of Aboriginal land, water and cultural heritage rights
Area of Crown land with native title determinations and/or Recognition and Settlement Agreements
Number of Registered Aboriginal Parties (RAPs) that have submitted a notice of intention to enter into an Aboriginal cultural heritage land management agreement (ACHLMA), since 2017
Number of Whole of Country Plans published
Number of Joint Management Plans and area of land covered
Number of cultural burns conducted
Formal partnership agreements for planning and management between Aboriginal communities and key water and catchment agencies
Goal 19: Aboriginal culture and language are supported and celebrated
Past government policies of dispossession and assimilation led to loss of Aboriginal cultural practice and languages.
Despite this, the strength and resilience of Aboriginal Victorians has helped to preserve cultural practices and languages, which continue to be practised and passed onto future generations.
19.1 Support the preservation, promotion and practice of culture and languages
Participation in community events which celebrate Aboriginal culture
Goal 20: Racism is eliminated
Racism can have a harmful impact on the cultural identity and confidence of Aboriginal Victorians.
Research shows that experiences of racism can also have detrimental long-term health effects, both mentally and physically.
20.1 Address and eliminate racism
Proportion of Aboriginal people who report having experienced racism in the previous 12 months
Prevalence of racist attitudes against Aboriginal Victorians held by the Victorian community
Reviewed 08 September 2023