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21 Sept 2022

Children, family and home data

All Aboriginal children and young people are safe, resilient, thriving and living in culturally rich, strong Aboriginal families and communities.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 1, 2 and 3.

Goal 1: Aboriginal children are born healthy and thrive

The first 5 years of a child's life are fundamental to shaping their future.

Delivering better maternal and early childhood services means removing barriers, promoting genuine and effective partnerships and supporting Aboriginal families to access culturally safe services.

1.1 Improve maternal and infant health

1.1.1 Babies born with low birth weight

1.1.2 Babies born preterm

1.1.3 Perinatal deaths

1.1.4 Maternal smoking during first 20 weeks of pregnancy

1.2 Children thrive in their first 1,000 days

1.2.1 Participation rates for Maternal and Child Health at key ages and stages of consultations

1.2.2 Attendance at Koori Maternity Services

1.2.3 Immunisation rates

1.2.4 Participation of 0–5 years children in Supported Playgroups (SPG)

Goal 2: Aboriginal children are raised by Aboriginal families

Culture, language and connection to community and Country all support children and young people to thrive.

Despite this, Victorian Aboriginal children and young people remain vastly over-represented in child protection and care.

2.1 Eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal children and young people in care

2.1.1 Children and young people in out of home care

2.1.2 Children in out of home care who are engaged with intensive family support services

2.2 Increase Aboriginal care, guardianship and management of Aboriginal children and young people in care

2.2.1 Aboriginal children in care by placement type

2.2.2 Aboriginal children and young people in care with a Cultural Plan

2.2.3 Aboriginal children and young people in care on contractible orders managed by Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs)

2.2.4 Aboriginal children and young people on protection orders under the direct authority of an ACCO (section 18)

2.3 Increase family reunifications for Aboriginal children and young people in care

2.3.1 Children who are reunified with parents within 12 months of admission to care

2.3.2 Children who exit care and do not return to care within 12 months

Goal 3: Aboriginal families and households thrive

Family violence has a disproportionate impact on Aboriginal people in Victoria, particularly women and children, regardless of where they live.

Aboriginal communities in Victoria have consistently led the way in developing strategic priorities and actions to prevent family violence. This is demonstrated through strong whole‑of‑community engagement initiatives that bring together women, men, children and Elders to collectively break the cycles of violence.

3.1 Reduce the incidence and impact of family violence affecting Aboriginal families

3.1.1 Family violence incidents by other party

3.1.2 Family violence incidents against an affected family member

3.1.3 Notifications to child protection for children and young people where family violence is identified

3.2 Increase income and housing security for Aboriginal households

3.2.1 Proportion of adults who did not run out of food and could afford to buy more, in the last 12 months

3.2.2 Proportion of households with less than 50% median equivalised income

3.2.3 Proportion of Victorian households in rental and mortgage stress

3.2.4 Proportion of Victorians who are homeless or accessing homelessness services

3.2.5 Proportion of Aboriginal Victorians living in over-crowded dwellings

Learning and skills data

Every Aboriginal person achieves their potential, succeeds in life, and feels strong in their cultural identity.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Goal 4: Aboriginal children thrive in the early years

Education is well known to be linked to improved wellbeing and increased equity, with kindergarten and early schooling a critical starting point to set Aboriginal children up for life.

Increased enrolment and participation in kindergarten and early-start programs can significantly improve social and emotional skills and resilience, and ensure Aboriginal children are in the best position to achieve their potential.

4.1.1 Number and proportion of eligible children enrolled in a funded four-year-old kindergarten program in the year before school

4.1.2 Number of children funded to participate in Early Start Kindergarten

4.1.3 Proportion of children vulnerable on one or more domain on the Australian Early Development Census

Goal 5: Aboriginal learners excel at school

For Aboriginal learners to excel at school, it is vital that schools are culturally supportive and responsive learning environments.

Cultural safety and connection to culture is a critical foundation that supports Aboriginal children to be confident learners and makes schools more inclusive of Aboriginal students and their aspirations.

5.1 Bring Aboriginal achievement at school in line with learners' aspirations

5.1.1 Percentage of students in top 3 bands: Literacy or numeracy (NAPLAN) in Year 3, 5, 7 and 9

5.2 Increase the proportion of Aboriginal students who feel safe and connected at school

5.2.1 Proportion of students who feel connected to their school

5.2.2 Student attendance rates in government schools

5.2.3 Number of Aboriginal people on school councils

5.2.5 Number and proportion of school-based Aboriginal education workers (principals, teachers, education support staff) across all government schools

5.2.6 Number of schools teaching an Aboriginal language

Goal 6: Aboriginal learners are engaged at school

Remaining engaged in school and completing and excelling at Year 12 or equivalent can provide Aboriginal learners with greater opportunities and choice for their future pathways.

Completing Year 12 or equivalent can support Aboriginal learners to pursue further education and training or to gain employment.

6.1 Increase year 12 or equivalent attainment

6.1.1 Proportion of young people aged 20-24 with Year 12 or equivalent

6.1.2 Apparent retention rates for students in Years 10 to 12

6.1.3 Number of Aboriginal students that complete the VCE, VCAL or VET in Schools Certificate

Goal 7: Aboriginal learners achieve their full potential after school

The opportunities and pathways made available to students immediately after high school can help set up a strong foundation for a successful, healthy and prosperous future.

Aboriginal learners must be supported to pursue their pathway of choice, whether that be further education, training or formal employment. This means making these opportunities more accessible for Aboriginal young people, as well as ensuring young people feel supported to follow their ambitions.

Lifelong learning must also be accessible and encouraged for adult Aboriginal Victorians, particularly those facing additional challenges to social and economic participation.

7.1.1 Destinations of year 12 completers

7.1.2 Proportion of 17 to 24 year old school leavers participating in full time education and training and/or employment

7.1.3 Participation and completion of Victorian 18 to 24 year-olds in VET(a) or university studies

7.1.4 Proportion of 20 to 64 year-olds with qualifications at Certificate III level or above

7.1.5 Proportion of 20 to 64 year-old government-funded and total VET graduates employed and/or in further study after training

7.1.6 Proportion of graduates and cadets employed in VPS – retention, progression and satisfaction

Opportunity and prosperity data

Fully participating in the economy provides Aboriginal Victorians with the resources they need to determine the future they want. Economic participation is therefore key to Aboriginal self‑determination.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 8, 9 and 10.

Goal 8: Aboriginal workers achieve wealth equality

Aboriginal Victorians have a long history of enterprise. Today, successful Aboriginal entrepreneurs are role models for young Aboriginal people.

As businesses grow and develop, they allow the next generation of entrepreneurs to step forward. Over time, this strengthens the economic position of Aboriginal communities.

8.1 Increase Aboriginal household income in line with the Victorian median

8.1.1 Median household income and median equivalised household income

8.2 Increase Aboriginal home ownership in line with the Victorian average

8.2.1 Proportion of homeowners versus other tenure types (by age bracket)

8.3 Increase Aboriginal business ownership and support Aboriginal entrepreneurs

8.3.1 Number of Victorian business owner-managers who are Aboriginal

8.3.2 Aboriginal businesses that government enters into a purchase agreement with as a proportion of small to medium enterprises

Goal 9: Strong Aboriginal workforce participation, in all sectors and at all levels

Fully participating in the economy provides Aboriginal Victorians with the resources they need to determine the future they want.

Economic participation is therefore key to Aboriginal self‑determination.

9.1 Increase Aboriginal workforce participation

9.1.1 Employment to population ratio

9.1.2 Proportion employed in full-time versus part-time or casual employment

9.1.3 Aboriginal jobseekers supported into work

9.2 Increase workforce participation for women

9.2.1 Workforce participation of women

9.3 Increase workforce participation for Aboriginal young people, people with a disability and people living in regional areas

9.3.1 Workforce participation by age, disability status and regional versus metropolitan

9.4 Increase Aboriginal leadership and representation across all sectors and levels

9.4.1 Aboriginal employment by sector, industry and occupation – with analysis by growth industry

9.4.2 Proportion of Aboriginal people employed across the VPS (with 2% target by 2022)

9.4.3 Number of Aboriginal people at VPS 6 level and above in the VPS

9.4.4 Number of Aboriginal people participating on government boards

Goal 10: Aboriginal income potential is realised

Aboriginal people, organisations and businesses already make valuable contributions to Victoria’s diverse economy.

Aboriginal economic development is vital to growing Victoria’s wealth generally and to increasing overall economic productivity and competitive advantage.

If the talent and aspiration of Aboriginal Victorians is given full expression in the Victorian economy, there is significant opportunity for Aboriginal income growth.

10.1 Increase Victoria's Aboriginal gross income and decrease the opportunity cost of Aboriginal income inequality

10.1.1 Estimated weekly income for all employed Aboriginal Victorians, midpoint of 2021 census income ranges

Health and wellbeing data

Improving health outcomes and having a good quality of life will ensure all Victorian Aboriginal communities can thrive.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 11, 12, 13 and 14.

Goal 11: Aboriginal Victorians enjoy health and longevity

Enjoying good health and wellbeing is fundamental.

While many Aboriginal Victorians report good health and there have been areas of improvement, government, services and communities need to take significant steps to improve health outcomes and quality of life for all Aboriginal Victorians.

Improving health outcomes and having a good quality of life will ensure all Victorian Aboriginal communities can thrive.

11.1 Improve Aboriginal health status, quality of life and life expectancy

11.1.1 Life expectancy at birth in Victoria

11.1.2 Proportion of age standardised self-assessed health status

11.1.3 Age standardised proportion of persons aged 18 and above who are daily smokers in Victoria

11.1.4 Separations per 1,000 population for preventable hospitalisations in Victoria

11.1.5 Cancer incidence for Victorians

11.1.7 Closed episodes for alcohol and other drug treatment services in Victoria

Goal 12: Aboriginal Victorians access the services they need

Access to primary health care is essential for supporting equitable health outcomes. Primary health care also plays an important role in prevention and early detection.

The provision of services alone does not ensure equity of access. Ensuring all Aboriginal Victorians can access the services they need means responding to the diversity of clients’ needs.

This includes promoting the voice of and providing support services to older people, people with a disability and people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and gender diverse, and intersex (LGBTI).

12.1 Improve access to health and community services for all Aboriginal Victorians

12.1.1 Number and proportion of Aboriginal Victorians who received a health check or assessment by age

12.1.2 Participation rates for women screened by BreastScreen Australia

12.1.3 Proportion and number accessing disability services in Victoria

12.1.4 Number and proportion accessing aged care services

12.1.5 Number and proportion of people aged 55 years or over who had an annual health assessment

Goal 13: Health and community services are culturally safe and responsive

It is important that Aboriginal Victorians can access culturally safe and culturally responsive health services when they need it.

A culturally safe and racism-free health and community service system is one in which people feel safe, where they can freely affirm their identity and where their needs are met.

13.1 Increase cultural safety and responsiveness of services

13.1.1 Aboriginal Victorians that reported experienced racism in health settings within the previous 12 months

13.1.3 Hospitalisations where patients left against medical advice/were discharged at own risk in Victoria

13.1.4 Number and proportion of Aboriginal people employed in the health or social services sector

Goal 14: Aboriginal Victorians enjoy social and emotional wellbeing

Most Victorian Aboriginal people and communities enjoy excellent social and emotional wellbeing and mental health.

However, many Aboriginal people report experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress.

14.1 Improve Aboriginal mental health and social and emotional wellbeing

14.1.1 Proportion reporting ‘high or very high’ levels of psychological and psychosocial distress

14.1.3 Proportion persons aged 15 and above reporting strong social networks they can draw on in times of crisis

14.1.4 People with a disability that are able to get support in times of crisis in Victoria

14.1.5 Community mental health care service contacts per 1,000 population in Victoria

Justice and safety data

While the number of Aboriginal young people in detention in Victoria remains small, the proportion of Aboriginal young people in detention has increased.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 15, 16, and 17.

Goal 15: Aboriginal over-representation in the justice system is eliminated

Most Aboriginal people will never become involved in the Victorian criminal justice system. However, those who do are more likely to experience ongoing involvement with the system.

Systemic and structural barriers that Aboriginal people experience — such as racism, social and economic disadvantage and involvement in the child protection system — can lead to over-representation in the justice system and entrenched cycles of disadvantage.

15.1 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal children and young people in the justice system

15.1.1 Unique youth offenders receiving a caution, arrest, summons or other by Indigenous status in Victoria

15.1.2 Young people (10 to 17 years) under youth justice community based supervision and supervision in detention, daily average

15.1.3 First-time youth alleged offenders (10 to 17 years) cautioned by police

15.1.4 Youth (10 to 17 years) in detention on remand

15.2 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal women in the justice system

15.2.1 Unique adult (18 years and above) female alleged offenders processed by police

15.2.2 Women under corrections supervision

15.2.3 Women who return to prison under sentence within 2 years of release

15.2.4 Women in prison on remand

15.3 Decrease the number and eliminate the over-representation of Aboriginal men in the justice system

15.3.1 Unique adult male alleged offenders processed by police

15.3.2 Men under corrections supervision

15.3.3 Men who return to prison under sentence within 2 years of release from a sentence episode

15.3.4 Men in prison on remand

Goal 16: Aboriginal Victorians have access to safe and effective justice services

Prevention and early intervention can keep Aboriginal young people, women and men out of the criminal justice system.

Community-based diversion programs and community-led services that connect people to culture can also help break cycles of offending and promote positive outcomes.

This also requires intersectional services in health, child protection, homelessness and family violence, to deliver effective prevention and early intervention support.

16.1 Increase Aboriginal participation in culturally safe and effective justice prevention, early intervention, diversion and support programs

16.1.1 Number and proportion of Aboriginal youth receiving intensive bail support through the Koori Intensive Support Program (KISP)

16.1.2 Number and proportion of Aboriginal adults receiving and referred for intensive bail support

16.1.3 Number of Aboriginal youth accessing community support programs through youth justice community services

Goal 17: Aboriginal Victorians feel safe and connected

Victoria Police Recruits, including Protective Services Officers, all receive Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training during Week 1 and Week 4 at the Police Academy.

Community-led justice responses are working to address local issues and build greater trust between Elders, community and police.

17.1 Increase community safety and trust in police and the justice system

17.1.1 Proportion of police officers who have received Aboriginal cultural awareness training (June 30 2020)

17.1.2 Victorians who feel safe/very safe walking alone at night in local area in the last 12 months (2006–08 and 2014–15)

17.1.3 Proportion who reported being a victim of physical or threatened violence in the last 12 months (2005–08 and 2014–16)

17.1.4 Aboriginal people employed with the Department of Justice and Community Safety, Victoria Police and Court Services Victoria

Culture and Country data

Victorian Aboriginal communities and peoples are culturally diverse, with rich and varied languages, traditions and histories.

View Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Framework data for Goals 18, 19 and 20.

Goal 18: Aboriginal land, water and cultural rights are realised

We recognise that Aboriginal Victorians hold distinct cultural rights, including the right to maintain their spiritual, material and economic relationship with their traditional lands and waters.

The connection to land, water and resources on Country is important to the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal Victorians, particularly Traditional Owners.

Reconnecting Traditional Owners to Country can help revive culture and contribute to an improved sense of identity. We recognise that only Traditional Owners can speak for Country.

18.1 Increase the recognition and enjoyment of Aboriginal land, water and cultural heritage rights

18.1.1 Area of Crown land with native title determinations and/or Recognition and Settlement Agreements

18.1.3 Number of Registered Aboriginal Parties (RAPs) that have submitted a notice of intention to enter into an Aboriginal cultural heritage land management agreement (ACHLMA), since 2017

18.1.4 Number of Whole of Country Plans published

18.1.5 Number of Joint Management Plans and area of land covered

18.1.6 Number of cultural burns conducted

18.1.7 Formal partnership agreements for planning and management between Aboriginal communities and key water and catchment agencies

Goal 19: Aboriginal culture and language are supported and celebrated

Past government policies of dispossession and assimilation led to loss of Aboriginal cultural practice and languages.

Despite this, the strength and resilience of Aboriginal Victorians has helped to preserve cultural practices and languages, which continue to be practised and passed onto future generations.

19.1 Support the preservation, promotion and practice of culture and languages

19.1.1 Participation in community events which celebrate Aboriginal culture

Goal 20: Racism is eliminated

Racism can have a harmful impact on the cultural identity and confidence of Aboriginal Victorians.

Research shows that experiences of racism can also have detrimental long-term health effects, both mentally and physically.

20.1 Address and eliminate racism

20.1.1 Proportion of Aboriginal people who report having experienced racism in the previous 12 months (Australia)

20.1.2 Prevalence of racist attitudes against Aboriginal Victorians held by the Victorian community (Australia)