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Pathway to Treaty

Find out about Victoria’s nation-leading Treaty process.

The journey to date

Laws to protect Treaty

The Advancing the Treaty Process with Aboriginal Victorians Act 2018 (Treaty Act) was enacted as Australia’s first ever Treaty legislation.

An independent and democratically elected representative body for First Peoples

A Statewide election established the First Peoples’ Assembly of Victoria to represent the voice of First Peoples in the Treaty process.


The Yoorrook Justice Commission is established to inquire into historic and contemporary injustices experienced by First Peoples across all areas of social, political and economic life, and the relationship between historical injustices and ongoing systemic injustices experienced today.

An independent ‘Treaty Umpire’

The Treaty Authority is independent from Government and will consist of five to seven members who will oversee and facilitate Treaty negotiations. The Treaty Authority and Other Treaty Elements Act 2022 supports the establishment and ongoing operation of the Treaty Authority.

Agreed rules and process for Treaty-making

The Treaty Negotiation Framework sets out the process and rules for negotiating a Statewide Treaty and Traditional Owner Treaties between the State and First Peoples. The Framework establishes a Treaty process in Victoria that is inclusive and open to all First Peoples, as well as ensuring the protection of Traditional Owners with existing legal rights such as Native Title.

Independent funding for Treaty negotiations

The Self-Determination Fund will provide First Peoples, including Traditional Owners, with a financial resource, independent from the State, to achieve ‘equal standing’ in Treaty negotiations. The Self-Determination Fund will also build capacity, wealth and prosperity for First Peoples.

Next steps: Treaty negotiations commence

With all these elements in place, Treaty negotiations can now commence. The Treaty Authority, once operational, will support First Peoples groups to register for Treaty negotiations and will invite the State to join Treaty negotiations. The Victorian Government anticipates formal Treaty negotiations will commence later in 2024.