Victoria’s first Closing the Gap Implementation Plan
The new National Agreement, signed in July 2020, was negotiated between all Australian Governments and the Coalition of Peaks, a representative body of over seventy Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-controlled peak organisations and members. It represents a shift at the national level in the approach of governments to closing the gap, one that is built upon genuine and meaningful partnerships with the Aboriginal community-controlled sector, Traditional Owner groups and the wider Aboriginal community.
The National Agreement is structured around 4 priority reform areas that are the mutually reinforcing enablers for achieving better outcomes for Aboriginal people. The priority reforms also broadly align with the 4 self-determination enablers in the VAAF, which has guided the Victorian Government’s efforts to improve outcomes for and with First Peoples since 2018.
The 4 priority reforms
- Priority Reform One: Formal partnerships and shared decision-making
- Priority Reform Two: Building the community-controlled sector
- Priority Reform Three: Transforming government organisations
- Priority Reform Four: Shared access to data and information at a regional level.
The National Agreement also sets out 17 socioeconomic targets across areas that have an impact on life outcomes for Aboriginal people. These targets aim to improve overall health and well-being for Aboriginal Victorians by closing the gap in outcomes across health, justice, education, economic and cultural areas. Summaries of how Victoria is progressing against these targets are included on the overview page of each relevant VAAF goal.
The Victorian Closing the Gap Implementation Plan 2021–2023 (Implementation Plan) outlines the actions Victoria will undertake to implement the National Agreement and achieve equity for Aboriginal Victorians. Many of the Victorian actions reported under the priority reforms are progressing outside the National Agreement’s formal governance, as part of Victoria’s commitment to broad self-determination reform.
In 2022, the Victorian Government established a new Partnership Forum on Closing the Gap (Partnership Forum). The Partnership Forum is Victoria’s formal partner for decision-making on Closing the Gap, and ensures implementation is community-led. The Partnership Forum is still in its establishment phase. In the spirit of self-determination, the Victorian Government has postponed decision-making on some implementation actions until Aboriginal representatives on the Partnership Forum confirm their readiness to make informed decisions. More detail about the Partnership Forum is outlined under Priority Reform One.
Reprioritisation of effort and investment
The Victorian Government will work with the Partnership Forum to identify opportunities to reprioritise efforts over the next twelve months, to achieve better outcomes.
Victoria will action several commitments under the National Agreement in 2022. This includes a self-assessment of our Implementation Plan to identify any gaps in the breadth and depth of Victoria’s actions.
Other examples of reprioritisation opportunities include:
- Access to Information (Target 17(b): Victoria will ensure this target is reflected in our Implementation Plan and a comprehensive set of actions is committed to (see below).
- Inland Waters (Target 15c): If agreed by the Joint Council on Closing the Gap (Joint Council) (Ministers from each jurisdiction and Coalition of Peaks), Target 15c and associated actions will also be reflected in our Implementation Plan.
- Expenditure Review: As noted under Priority Reform Two, work is underway to identify current spending on Aboriginal programs and services as well as reprioritisation opportunities to ACCOs. The exact number of funded ACCOs, and the relevant funding, will be determined as part of the expenditure review, which is due for Joint Council consideration in December 2022.
All key decisions regarding Victoria’s implementation approach for the National Agreement will be made in partnership with the Partnership Forum.
Updating Victoria’s Implementation Plan
It will be crucial that Victoria’s Implementation Plan continues to be reviewed and updated to ensure it remains relevant, transparent and ambitious. The approach to developing Victoria’s next Implementation Plan requires alignment with Treaty processes. Consideration of Victoria’s next Implementation Plan will occur in the second part of 2023.
Priority Reform One: Formal Partnerships and shared decision-making
Outcome: People are empowered to share decision-making authority with governments to accelerate policy and place-based progress on Closing the Gap through formal partnership arrangements.
Target: There will be formal partnership arrangements to support Closing the Gap in place between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and governments in place in each state and territory enshrining agreed joint decision-making roles and responsibilities and where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have chosen their own representatives.
The Victorian Government is committed to building and strengthening structures that empower Aboriginal people and communities to share decision-making authority, as outlined in the National Agreement.
Shared decision-making is crucial for ensuring self-determining and culturally appropriate responses Victoria has a long history of shared decision-making, which continues to develop and evolve to respond to the changing needs and aspirations of communities.
The Victorian Government is committed to the establishment of policy partnerships in addition to the formal partnerships for decision-making between government and the Aboriginal community-controlled sector.
Policy partnerships are created between all governments and the Coalition of Peaks for the purpose of working on discrete policy areas. Under the National Agreement, parties have committed to establishing five policy partnerships by the end of 2022:
- Justice (JPP)
- Social and Emotional Well-being
- Early Childhood Care and Development
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages (Languages).
The JPP was the first policy partnership to be established in late 2021. A key objective of the JPP is to develop a joined-up approach to Aboriginal justice policy between all levels of government. It will identify specific measures to reduce over-representation of Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system and Aboriginal deaths in custody.
The Victorian Government is represented on the JPP by the Deputy Secretary of Aboriginal Justice at the Departments of Justice and Community Safety (DJCS). The JPP has met several times and Victoria has presented the Aboriginal Justice Caucus’ reform priorities at these meetings. The JPP will shortly:
- make recommendations to Joint Council to reduce over-incarceration of Aboriginal people
- consider jurisdictional implementation plans relating to National Agreement justice outcomes
- agree on justice policy areas for JPP considerations and develop a 3-year strategic plan
- develop an annual report to Joint Council on the actions of the JPP and its progress and
- develop a second work plan for 2022–2023.
Victoria is participating in early consultation processes to inform the remaining policy partnerships, which will be established through a phased approach. The Social and Emotional Well-being and Early Childhood Care and Development policy partnerships will be considered by Joint Council in August 2022, and the Housing and Languages policy partnerships in December 2022.
Place-based partnerships are based on a specific region, between government and Aboriginal representatives, and others by agreement, from those specific areas.
The National Agreement requires that Joint Council consider the locations for six new place-based partnerships. As of June 2022, there are 4 agreed locations: Tamworth (NSW), Maningrida (NT), Doomadgee (QLD), Western Suburbs of Adelaide (SA).
The Victorian Government is seeking the views of the First Peoples’ Assembly and Victoria’s Partnership Forum on whether to pursue a place-based partnership. At the time of reporting, no decision had been made regarding a Victorian place-based partnership nomination.
Treaty: Victoria’s treaty process seeks to redefine and restructure the relationship between First Peoples, the State and all Victorians. Treaty is the primary mechanism for transferring decision-making power and resources to communities in Victoria. It will provide a new foundation and resource base for Aboriginal Victorians to steer issues and decisions that affect their lives. Under the Advancing the Treaty Process with Aboriginal Victorians Act 2018, the First Peoples' Assembly is the independent and democratically elected representative body of Traditional Owners and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, for the purpose of establishing elements necessary to support future treaty negotiations. As detailed under Domain 6 of this report, the treaty process has achieved significant milestones.
Victoria is otherwise progressing the strong partnership elements under the National Agreement through the following actions:
- Closing the Gap Partnership Forum: In 2022, the Victorian Government facilitated a community-based selection process to establish a new Partnership Forum on Closing the Gap (Partnership Forum), Victoria’s formal partner for decision-making on Closing the Gap. Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs) and Traditional Owner groups elected representatives from across 14 sectors to be members of the Partnership Forum, in a process run independently of government. Members of the Partnership Forum will regularly engage with their sector to ensure they are representative of, and accountable to, their sectors.
- Continued support for Aboriginal Governance Forums: The Victorian Government has well-established formal partnerships with Aboriginal Governance Forums across various sectors which are resourced to enable shared decision-making with Aboriginal communities and organisations. See table below.
- Assessment of Aboriginal Governance Forums: In 2022, departments and their relevant Aboriginal Governance Forum completed an assessment against the partnership elements in the National Agreement. All governance forums have met, to a high degree, the partnership elements. A complete assessment of Aboriginal Governance Forums can be found at Closing the Gap Data Table B.
|Partnership Forums||Summary||Approximate resourcing to support forums in 2021–22|
|Aboriginal Children’s Forum (ACF), DFFH|| |
Established in 2015 to drive the safety and wellbeing of Aboriginal children and young people in, or at risk of entering, out-of-home care.Relevant Strategy: Wungurilwil Gapgapduir: Aboriginal Children and Families Agreement
DFFH supports the ACF through internal funding.DFFH covers the cost of accommodation for ACCOs who attend the ACF.
|Aboriginal Justice Forum (AJF), DJCS|| |
Established in 2000 to improve Aboriginal justice outcomes, enhance family and community safety, and reduce Aboriginal over-representation in the Victorian criminal justice system.
Relevant Strategy: Burra Lotjpa Dunguludja: Victorian Aboriginal Justice Agreement
DJCS provided funding for 1 VPS5 (1 FTE), 1 VPS6 (0.2 FTE) and 1 VPS4 (0.6 FTE) to support policy and secretariat functions.In 2021–22, DJCS provided $80,000 to deliver the AJF. DJCS also funded members $33,000 in sitting fees to support their participation at 1 in-person and 2 online meetings.
|Aboriginal Strategic Governance Forum (ASGF), DFFH|| |
Established in 2017 as an advisory and decision-making forum used to set DFFH's strategic direction on relevant portfolios.
Relevant Strategies: Aboriginal Governance and Accountability Framework, Korin Korin Balit-Djak: Aboriginal Health, Wellbeing and Safety Strategic Plan 2017–2027
DFFH provided funding for 1 VPS6 (1 FTE) and 1 VPS5 (0.5 FTE) to support policy and secretariat functions.
DFFH funded members to lead/participate in 6 meetings:
DFFH provided $45–$60 per hour for out of session contributions of ASGF Koorie Caucus members.
|Dhelk Dja Partnership Forum, Family Safety Victoria / DFFH|| |
Established in 2005 to address issues of Aboriginal family violence.
Relevant Strategy: Dhelk Dja: Safe Our Way – Strong Culture, Strong Peoples, Strong Families
DFFH provided funding to the Victorian Aboriginal Community Services Association Ltd (VACSAL) for an Executive Officer and Policy Officer to support engagement.
DFFH funded member organisations $160,000 to participate in meetings and forums. Regional Action Groups received $80,000 for sitting fees and engagement support.
|Marrung Central Governance Committee (Marrung), DET|| |
Established in 2016 to ensure all Koorie Victorians achieve their learning aspirations.Relevant Strategy: Marrung: Aboriginal Education Plan 2016–2026
DET supported the Victorian Aboriginal Education Association Inc (VAEAI) to participate in Marrung governance mechanisms, including delivery of Koorie Education Roundtables and sitting fees for Local Aboriginal Education Consultative Group Chairs on Marrung governance mechanisms.
|State-wide Caring for Country Partnership Forum (SCfCPF), DELWP|| |
Established in 2020 under Pupangarli Marmarnepu: ‘Owning Our Future’ Aboriginal Self-Determination Strategy 2020–2025 to monitor and evaluate policies and ensure accountability to Aboriginal communities.Relevant Strategy: Pupangarli Marmarnepu: ‘Owning Our Future’ Aboriginal Self-Determination Strategy 2020-2025
DELWP provided funding for 1 VPS (1 FTE) to provide a secretariat role to the Statewide Caring for Country Partnership Forum.DEWLP provided funding for approximately 1 FTE to the Traditional Owner Corporation Caucus (TOCC) for secretariat support and services to allow for their collective engagement and participation in the SCfCPF.
|Victorian Aboriginal Employment and Economic Council (VAEEC), DJPR|| |
Established in 2020 to improve employment and economic outcomes for Aboriginal Victorians. It provides advice and guidance to government on matters affecting Aboriginal Victorians in business, employment, tourism, culture and broader economic development.Relevant Strategy: Yuma Yirramboi: Invest in Tomorrow - Aboriginal Employment and Economic Strategy
DJPR provided funding for 1 VPS6 and 1 VPS4 to provide secretariat support.
VAEEC members were provided sitting fees to support their participation, including: Chair: $196–$448 per day and Members: $169–$349 per day.
VAEEC received approximately $121,000 to hold hybrid meetings and workshops during 2021–2022 and 1 VPS4 (1 FTE).The 2021/22 State Budget delivered approximately $91,000 funding to undertake research, data collection and consultation.
Victorian Aboriginal Health and Wellbeing Partnership Forum (AHWPF), DH
Established in 2021 to enable strategic collaboration between the Aboriginal community-controlled health sector, the mainstream health sector and government.
Relevant Strategy: An Aboriginal Health and Wellbeing Partnership Agreement is in development
Organisation (VACCHO) to provide secretariat functions.
DH funded 3 meetings, including venue and accommodation support for ACCHO member representatives and a Secretariat officer as determined by VACCHO.Future funding to VACCHO will include core policy funding in recognition of community leadership to progress actions from meetings in addition to the current deliverables.
|Victorian Aboriginal Housing and Homelessness Framework Implementation Working Group, Homes Victoria / DFFH|| |
Established in 2021 to support actions that ensure a resourced and capable housing and homelessness system within Victoria.Relevant Strategy: Mana-na Woorn-Tyeen Maar-Takoort: Every Aboriginal Person has a Home - Victorian Aboriginal Housing and Homelessness Framework
Homes Victoria provided funding to Aboriginal Housing Victoria including funding for 2 VPS5 equivalent (2 FTE) and 1 VPS6 equivalent (0.5 FTE) to support policy and secretariat functions.
Priority Reform Two: Building the Aboriginal Community-Controlled Sector
Outcome: There is a strong and sustainable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-controlled sector delivering high quality services to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across the country.
Target: Increase the amount of government funding for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander programs and services going through Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-controlled organisations.
Aboriginal community-controlled services are self-determining and representative of their sectors. The Victorian Government acknowledges that ACCOs achieve better results, are culturally safe, employ more Aboriginal people, and are often preferred over mainstream services.
The Victorian Government is committed to building the capacity and capability of ACCOs. This will help drive sustainability and self-determination by empowering organisations to set the policy direction for, and independently plan, the services they provide to their communities.
The National Agreement commits parties to establish national sector strengthening plans for the 4 priority sectors of Health, Early Childhood Care and Development, Disability and Housing. The Health and Early Childhood Care and Development plans were agreed-in-principle by Joint Council in December 2021, and the Housing and Disability plans agreed-in-principle in August 2022.
The Victorian Government has worked closely with the Coalition of Peaks and the ACCO sector to support the development of these plans, including through our representation in sector strengthening working groups. The finalised plans identify joint national strengthening efforts. Victoria’s implementation approach for these plans will be determined by the Partnership Forum.
Upon signing the National Agreement, Victoria committed $3.3 million over 4 years in 2020–21 as part of a virtual funding pool to build the capacity of the ACCO sector.
Examples of key actions to strengthen the Aboriginal community-controlled sector include:
- Expenditure review: DPC has begun work on Victoria’s approach to the National Agreement’s expenditure review. The expenditure review will examine government spending on Aboriginal programs and services to determine where funding can be reprioritised towards the ACCO sector. The Partnership Forum will consider the scope of the expenditure review.
- Funding reform for ACCOs: The Departments of Families, Fairness and Housing (DFFH) has launched a pilot with Djirra for a cross-sector outcomes framework to support the development of Aboriginal defined measures and outcomes. The next phase of the work will be to facilitate discussions and forums within DFFH to explore options for integrating the self-determined outcomes work of Djirra into funding and commissioning cycles.
- Increasing self-determination through outcomes-based funding: The Department of Health (DH) is working with Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) to progress an outcome-based approach to funding and measurement. It is intended that the outcomes-based approach commences in the 2022–23 financial year, with the aim of multi-year funding agreements and streamlined, outcomes focused reporting through an annual VACCHO impact statement.
- Aboriginal Workforce Fund: The $40 million Aboriginal Workforce Fund (AWF) managed by DFFH and DH is designed to boost the Aboriginal community, health and family violence workforce as communities recover from the pandemic. See Domain 4 for more detail.
- Coronavirus Aboriginal Community Response and Recovery Fund: The $10 million Fund supported ACCOs and Traditional Owner groups to deliver place-based responses to the impacts of COVID-19. DPC has conducted an evaluation to provide an evidence base for future flexible funding to ACCOs and Traditional Owner groups.
- Aboriginal Community Infrastructure Program (ACIP): The sixth round of funding under the ACIP is being delivered in 2022–23, with a record $10 million on offer. ACIP is a competitive grants program which enables community-controlled Aboriginal organisations to build new infrastructure or to repair, refurbish or expand existing infrastructure to meet emerging needs. Alongside this, the First Mortgage and Community Infrastructure Program strengthens the economic capacity and sustainability of Aboriginal organisations to move towards self-determination. Aboriginal organisations that own a property where the Minister for Treaty and First Peoples holds a first mortgage can apply to have the first mortgage removed.
- Victoria’s Infrastructure Strategy 2021–2051: The Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions (DJPR) and DPC are working to respond to Recommendation 67 in Victoria’s Infrastructure Strategy 2021–2051, about co-designing an Aboriginal community-controlled infrastructure plan. DJPR will engage a consultant to scope this work and inform a plan to guide investment in Aboriginal community-controlled infrastructure, to meet current and future social, economic and cultural needs.
- Burra Lotjpa Dunguludja, Victorian Aboriginal Justice Agreement: In 2020–21, almost 99 per cent of more than $30 million funding administered by the Koori Justice Unit to support implementation of Burra Lotjpa Dunguludja was provided to Aboriginal organisations. See Domain 5 for more detail.
For a comprehensive list of actions government is taking to strengthen the Aboriginal community-controlled sector, please refer to Closing the Gap Data Table C.
Priority Reform Three: Transforming Government Organisations
Outcome: Improving mainstream institutions: Governments, their organisations and their institutions are accountable for Closing the Gap and are culturally safe and responsive to the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including through the services they fund.
Target: Decrease in the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who have experiences of racism.
As the provider or funder of services that benefit the entire community, it is crucial that the Victorian Government ensures its systems, institutions, and services are culturally safe and responsive to the needs of Aboriginal people.
Under the VAAF, SDRF, National Agreement and in our Implementation Plan, Victoria has committed to structural transformation of government organisations and mainstream service providers.
The findings and recommendations of the Yoorrook Justice Commission and the negotiation of treaty are central to the transformation of government, which will ultimately contribute to the outcomes required to the close the gap.
The key partnership action of the National Agreement requires that by 2023, governments each identify, develop or strengthen an independent mechanism that will support, monitor and report on the transformation of mainstream agencies and institutions. The mechanism must be culturally safe and support mainstream agencies to embed and practice culturally appropriate service offerings. Any independent mechanism will also have to have regard to broader reform underway through the treaty process.
In addition, to fully realise the ambition of Priority Reform Three, Victoria is currently working with all parties to develop a nationally consistent understanding and approach about how to meet its goal of system level transformation. This requires our input into key data development work at the national level to better measure and report on this priority reform, as well as focusing efforts on building shared understandings and evidence of what works in improving mainstream institutions.
Victoria is continuing to focus on implementing and consolidating existing actions to transform mainstream institutions. Examples of key actions include:
- Self-Determination Reform Framework (SDRF): Examples of how all departments and agencies are transforming to enable self-determination are included throughout this report under relevant domains.
- Cultural safety: Initiatives include the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning’s (DELWP) internal Aboriginal Cultural Safety Training, and the Department of Education and Training’s (DET) Community Understanding and Cultural Safety programs in government schools.
- Statement of Recognition: To acknowledge the role of historic and ongoing biases and racism within government service systems, Victoria has begun investigating reform options to insert a Statement of Recognition within key pieces of legislation. This would include embedding self-determination in legislation and prioritising the role of ACCOs in service delivery. For example, the Children and Health Legislation Amendment (Statement of Recognition and Other Matters) Bill 2022 seeks to introduce a Statement of Recognition in three acts: the Children Youth and Families Act 2005, Public Health and Well-being Act 2008 and the Health Services Act 1998.
- Yoorrook Justice Commission: On 24 March 2022, the Commission formally launched its truth-telling inquiry into past and ongoing impacts of colonisation and injustices across all areas of life. Supported by an investment of $58.3 million over 4 years in the 2021/22 State Budget, the Commission will continue to hear First Peoples’ experiences and make recommendations for healing, system reform and practical changes to laws, policy and education. The Commission delivered its Interim Report “Yoorrook with Purpose” on 30 June 2022, and its final report is due in June 2024. The Minister for Treaty and First Peoples appeared as part of the first hearings in April–May 2022. The Minister’s witness statement acknowledged the State’s responsibility for injustices experienced across land, waters, justice and health outcomes, and its role in righting these wrongs. The Victorian Government remains committed to engaging genuinely and transparently with the Commission to support its truth-telling objectives. In 2021, the Department of Premier and Cabinet (DPC) established the Yoorrook Justice Commission Response and Engagement Branch to support the State’s engagement with the Commission. Dedicated teams to coordinate Commission-related work have also been established within many departments as well as an Interdepartmental Committee. More information about the Commission is available at .
For a comprehensive list of actions government is taking to transform its institutions and systems, please refer to Closing the Gap Data Table D.
Priority Reform Four: Shared Access to Data and Information at a Regional level
Outcome: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have access to, and the capability to use, locally relevant data and information to set and monitor the implementation of efforts to close the gap, their priorities and drive their own development.
Target: Increase the number of regional data projects to support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to make decisions about Closing the Gap and their development.
Victoria is working towards increasing Aboriginal ownership and control of data, as a key enabler of self-determination.
This includes shared access to local and disaggregated data and information for Aboriginal communities and organisations.
Indigenous Data Sovereignty (IDS) principles recognise that Aboriginal communities and organisations should have governance, choice and control over data collected from and about their communities, and have ready access to data analytics to support strong decision-making.
Resourcing Aboriginal people and organisations to collect, analyse and own data is an act of self-determination. This is reflected in the work of the Yoorrook Justice Commission, which identified IDS as one of its strategic priorities in 2022 and has enacted strong IDS policies.
While there is already baseline data available for most socioeconomic outcomes under the National Agreement, the quality and quantity of this data varies, as has the level of access and engagement for Aboriginal people and organisations.
The Victorian Government has been working collaboratively with other jurisdictions and the Coalition of Peaks to develop the first national Data Development Plan. This new Data Development Plan will ensure that each socioeconomic outcome has a richer array of high-quality data sources over the life of the National Agreement.
Over 2021–22, Victoria also led scoping for data sharing work through the National Data Sharing Work Program. This work is set to continue in 2022 and align closely with the Data Development Plan.
To date, Victoria is yet to nominate a location for a community data project in response to the National Agreement. Locally relevant data will help to identify the differing needs and experiences between Aboriginal people in metropolitan and regional Victoria, and between regions.
Victoria is committed to shared access to data and information at a regional level. Examples of key actions include:
- Target trajectory modelling: DPC is investigating options and methods to develop modelling of the trajectories for each socioeconomic target under the National Agreement alongside the anticipated year when parity will be achieved (that is, no gap between outcomes for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Victorians). Digital Victoria is currently considering options for ensuring and agreeing designed regions for disaggregation of data and the minimum data sets available for each region.
- Consideration of more ambitious Closing the Gap targets: The Partnership Forum will have the opportunity to review the target trajectory modelling and consider strengthening Victorian targets to be more ambitious where Victoria is on track to achieve any targets in advance of 2031.
- Mid-term review of the VAAF: In 2022, the Victorian Government commenced a desktop mid-term review of the VAAF to identify alignment and differences between the VAAF measures and Closing the Gap targets. This work will be progressed through the Partnership Forum.
- VAAF data dashboard: DPC has developed an online user-friendly data dashboard to increase community access to current and historical data across the VAAF’s 111 measures. Data is provided at the Local Government Area level where available.
- Sector wide data access and data sharing agreements across government: DELWP's IDS policy project is a top priority under DELWP’s Pupangarli Marnmarnepu Implementation Action Plan. DELWP has established a Project Control Board to oversee development of IDS policy, workshops with Traditional Owners to explore what IDS means to them as a first step towards developing policy, and drafting the DELWP IDS paper.
For a comprehensive list of actions to promote shared access to data and information, please refer to Closing the Gap Data Table E.
Reviewed 12 April 2023